Final “ed” sounds

There are three different final “ed” sounds, (“t”, “d” and “id”) in verbs in the past tense. The correct pronunciation of “ed” depends on the sound (not the letter) the word ends with before the “ed” is added.

Final ‘ed’ sound pronounced as a /t/ sound

To make the /t/ sound, move your tongue to the roof of your mouth.  Push air out of your mouth at the same time as you lower your tongue. Sound comes from the front of the mouth. Vocal flaps are not used. This is an unvoiced sound.

We use the /t/ sound after the following sounds;

/p/ – bumped, chopped, chirped, clipped, developed, dropped, dumped, gripped, jumped,  lapped, leaped, limped, mapped, mopped, ripped, slapped, trapped, and wrapped

/k/ –  asked, attacked, barked, blinked, blocked, checked, cracked, flocked, hacked, kicked, leaked, licked, liked, looked, packed, smoked, thanked, walked, and worked

/f/ – bluffed, coughed, golfed, handcuffed, laughed, sniffed, stuffed,

/s/ – announced, bussed, canvassed, compressed, danced, dressed, embarrassed, flossed, forced, guessed, hissed, introduced, kissed, missed, noticed, paced, and promised

/ɵ/ – frothed and unearthed

/ʃ/ – abolished, ambushed, bashed, blushed, brushed, cashed, crashed, crushed, fished, furnished, hushed, mashed, impoverished, wished, meshed, pushed, and rushed

/ʧ/ – approached, attached, beached, bleached, benched, clenched, clinched, coached, detached, drenched, etched, fetched, hitched, watched, and sandwiched

Final ed sound pronounced as a /d/ sound

The /d/ sound is made like /t/ but the voice comes from deep in the throat using the vocal flaps. Do not add another syllable. This is a voiced sound.

We use the /d/ sound after the following final sounds;

/b/ – absorbed, clubbed, dabbed, fibbed, grabbed, disrobed, grabbed, mobbed, nabbed, robbed, and rubbed

/g/ – bagged, begged, bugged, belonged, bragged, clogged, dragged, flogged, jogged, lagged, nagged, plugged, rigged, sagged, wagged and zigzagged

/v/ – approved, behaved, believed, carved, craved, deceived, deserved, enslaved, improved, lived, loved, observed, saved, and shaved,

/z/ – appraised, buzzed, frizzed, lazed, praised, quizzed and raised

/l/ – called, boiled, piled, and styled

/m/ – crammed, roamed, timed, and rhymed

/n/ – penned, banned, moaned, phoned, and tuned

/r/ – barred, sparred, erred, spared, appeared, compared, and considered

/ð/ – bathed, bad-mouthed, mouthed and smoothed

/ʤ/ – edged, judged, budged, wedged, and alleged

All vowel sounds – played, sawed, annoyed, and stayed

Final ed sound pronounced as an /ɪd/ sound

In the following words “ed” adds a syllable. Note that the emphasis is on the first syllable not the added /id/ syllable.

We use the /ɪd/ sound after the following final sounds;

/t/ – roasted, toasted, waited, created, cheated, accepted, connected, excited, exited, and invented

/d/ – waded, faded, folded, scolded, avoided, expanded, and pretended


Use a book, magazine, newspaper or select and copy any online article. Circle the words with the above final ed sounds.

Record the article that you have chosen. Listen to the recording to make certain your pronunciation is accurate.

Take me to the final “ed” sound quiz

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